Computer Science

The Websites Have Ears: Tracking and Privacy on the Internet

2020-11-27T16:42:03-08:00 November 27th, 2020|Computer Science, Issue I, Volume XX|

Abstract Much of what we do online is tracked. But how? There are two major web tracking techniques: cookies and browser fingerprinting. Cookies, which are data stored in a user’s browser by a website, come in the form of first-party and third-party cookies.First-party cookies, which compensate for weaknesses in how the internet is designed, are [...]

How the Presidential Election Gave us the Technology to Plot the First Down Line in Football

2020-11-27T16:06:33-08:00 November 12th, 2020|Computer Science, Issue I, Sports & Recreation, Volume XX|

Abstract Football games and other sports broadcasts require a lot of information to help viewers understand what is happening as well as enhance their enjoyment of the game. A key portion of displaying this information comes from character generation (CG) graphics that are created during the live broadcast to display game scores and highlight important [...]

A Stroke of Genius: Neurorehabilitation through Virtual Reality

2019-11-13T11:43:42-08:00 August 27th, 2019|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Entertainment, Health & Medicine, Issue IV, Volume XIX|

Written by: Annie Lee About the Author: Annie Lee is an undergraduate student at the University of Southern California pursuing a progressive Bachelor’s to Master’s Degree in Occupational Therapy. Abstract The aim of physical stroke rehabilitation is to improve motor function in paralyzed or semi-paralyzed limbs. Although the problem is physical, it begins with the [...]

The Making of Mario in 3D

2019-11-13T11:43:26-08:00 August 26th, 2019|Art, Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue IV, Volume XIX|

Written by: Rohan Tulsiani About the Author: Rohan Tulsiani is a 21-year-old undergraduate Computer Science student at the University of Southern California. Rohan works as a Teacher Assistant for ITP485, which is USC’s undergraduate Game Engine class. Abstract With the advent of Virtual Reality and other major advances in the field of computer graphics, video [...]

Man vs. Machine: Testing Machine Learning through Playing Video Games

2019-11-13T11:39:44-08:00 July 1st, 2019|Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue III, Lifestyle, Volume XIX|

Written by: Vicky Hui Competitive AI systems beat the best human players in chess, “Go,” checkers, and poker [1]. Over the last decade, innovation in AI learning has enabled computers to navigate more complex and chaotic problems in the real world, through soft-coded systems and reinforcement learning. Most recently, this has been exhibited in the [...]

On-Screen Graphics and Their Impact on Sports

2019-11-13T11:37:53-08:00 April 9th, 2019|Computer Science, Issue II, Sports & Recreation, Volume XIX|

Abstract Since the mid 90’s, networks have projected virtual graphics onto the field during sporting events for at-home viewers; the most successful example is the 1st and Ten yellow line system used in football. By providing the audience with important information without distracting from the game, the system has changed how we watch football. Despite [...]

Thermal Imaging: The next game changer for medical devices?

2019-03-07T17:38:07-08:00 March 7th, 2019|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Material Science, Volume XIX|

Abstract Thermal imaging has incredible medical device applications. Infrared light is the driving force behind this technology because it allows us to produce an image derived from temperature variations. Bolometers allow infrared light to be converted to temperatures and are produced through UV lithography. The final product is infrared sensors that are affordable and can [...]

Fully Automatic Timing: The Most Reliable Sports Referee

2019-03-07T17:37:46-08:00 March 7th, 2019|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue I, Sports & Recreation, Volume XIX|

Abstract There’s nothing quite like the thrill of watching a close finish in racing sports such as track and swimming. However, sometimes these finishes are so close that they leave fans, and even referees, wondering who actually completed the race first. To address this ambiguity, the Fully Automatic Timing (FAT) system has been developed. This [...]

AI Behind AlphaGo: Machine Learning and Neural Network

2019-03-07T17:37:21-08:00 March 7th, 2019|Computer Science, Entertainment, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Sports & Recreation, Volume XIX|

Abstract The board game Go has been viewed as one of the most challenging tasks for artificial intelligence because it is “complex, pattern-based and hard to program”. The computer program AlphaGo’s victory over Lee Sedol became a huge moment in the history of artificial intelligence and computer engineering. We can observe AlphaGo’s enormous capacity,  but [...]

A Face Only Law Enforcement Could Love: Using Facial Recognition to Improve Security

2019-03-07T17:36:55-08:00 March 7th, 2019|Computer Science, Issue I, Security & Defense, Volume XIX|

Abstract Imagine making a credit card payment with just a selfie or having a virtually unhackable password without memorizing a single character. With the advancement of biometric security measures such as facial recognition, consumers will no longer have to imagine a world where this is possible. The technology that has been in development since the [...]

Touchscreen: an Engineered Harmony between Humans and Machines

2018-10-31T12:34:55-07:00 October 30th, 2018|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, History & Society, Issue III, Lifestyle, Mechanical Engineering, Volume XVIII|

Abstract Touchscreens change the way we interact with computers and machines. They remove physical buttons, make computers and machines easier and more fun to interact with, and integrate more technology into our everyday lives. Touchscreens also allow us to humanize or anthropomorphize devices because it reduces the barrier between the user and the device. While [...]

DNA Computing – The World’s Best Computers Already Exist and We Didn’t Make Them

2018-10-31T12:35:32-07:00 October 30th, 2018|Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computer Science, Health & Medicine, Issue III, Volume XVIII|

Abstract DNA has been introduced to the computer science field as one of the newest materials used for computer construction and computational mechanics. Its unique chemical properties make it faster and smaller than traditional computers– able to perform parallel operations on enormous amounts of data. Since Leonard Adleman’s first experiment with this media,  others have [...]

Ask Me Anything

2018-10-31T12:35:41-07:00 October 30th, 2018|Communication, Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue III, Lifestyle, Volume XVIII|

Abstract Natural language processing (NLP) techniques help artificially intelligent computers understand and answer the questions that humans ask. Though NLP in artificial intelligence was popularized in everyday devices like Apple’s Siri  and Amazon’s Alexa, we can trace many of the techniques and methods used today back to Watson, the Jeopardy! robot. Growing NLP capabilities drive [...]

Cryptography and Communication Security in a Digital Age

2018-11-05T12:21:59-08:00 October 26th, 2018|Communication, Computer Science, Issue II, Security & Defense, Volume XVIII|

Abstract Have you ever forgotten your password on a website where you made an account months before?  The process of retrieving that password begins with a trial and error process of running through your familiar passwords and usually ends with a frustrated click on the “Forgot password?” button nearby. After refreshing your inbox in search [...]

The Computation of Love: Finding Your Soul Mate Online

2019-05-22T09:44:34-07:00 October 26th, 2018|Computer Science, Issue II, Lifestyle, Volume XVIII|

The Computation of Love: Finding Your Soul Mate Online   Abstract   In an age of technology and free Wi-Fi, those of us navigating the single life can opt for the electronic highway to love. Computer engineering has allowed society to grasp the subjective nature of attraction and translate it into quantitative data that computers [...]

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? A Look Into Google’s DeepDream

2018-01-19T06:57:09-08:00 March 21st, 2017|Art, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Lifestyle, Volume XVIII|

Do androids dream of electric sheep? The answer lies within Google's new image recognition algorithm, DeepDream. While the algorithm is more generally used to identify objects in images, it can also be used to give images a “dreamy” makeover. To fully understand what DeepDream is, and how it gives images these bizarre makeovers, we must [...]

Leaving the Light On: Vacuum Tubes and their Reemergence

2017-11-29T17:15:16-08:00 March 21st, 2017|Computer Science, Entertainment, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Lifestyle, Music, Volume XVIII|

Walk into an Urban Outfitters, coffee shop, or cafe in any arts district and you will catch wind of an audio craze that has blown through the younger generation – analog sound. Boycotting digital sound, those who seek warm, analog signals wish to receive their music in a more natural way – not unlike preferring [...]

Are You a Human? Exploring What Web Security Means to You

2018-01-19T06:26:26-08:00 April 12th, 2016|Communication, Computer Science, Issue I, Security & Defense, Volume XVIII|

The internet is a ubiquitous part of everyday life with people using it for work, play, and everything in-between. But for every helpful use of modern computers' superior speed and performance, there is also a way for malicious hackers to counteract traditional security measures. This becomes a considerable issue as the internet expands in terms [...]

Engineering NBA Players’ Health

2018-01-19T06:26:43-08:00 October 25th, 2015|Computer Science, Health & Medicine, History & Society, Issue III, Lifestyle, Physics, Sports & Recreation, Volume XVII|

Modern wearable sensors utilize global positioning system (GPS) technology to track basic movement data that has both statistical and medical implications in the sports world. This article highlights the ingenuity of such sensors, which weigh only one ounce yet contain an accelerometer (measures starts and stops), gyroscope (measures bending and twisting of the body), magnetometer [...]

A New World of Opportunity: A Look Into Virtual Reality

2017-10-26T18:18:21-07:00 December 6th, 2013|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue I, Volume XVI|

People have shown an interest in virtual reality, long before we were capable of accomplishing it. Now, with technological advancements in computer graphics and hardware, engineers are closing the gap between fact and science fiction. Developing advanced 3D displays and increasing processing speed and response time are leading to a future with authentic, immersive virtual [...]

Wearable Contact-Lens Display: The Next Generation of Wearable Technology

2017-10-26T18:55:24-07:00 July 29th, 2013|Communication, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Food & Drink, Health & Medicine, Industrial Engineering, Issue I, Lifestyle, Sports & Recreation, Transportation, Volume XVII|

Engineers are on the brink of major breakthroughs in creating contact lenses that offer wearers all of the functionality of a computer or smartphone. Earlier iterations of this technology have been confined to clunky glasses and goggles. However, new composite materials that combine graphene and silver nanowires are making it possible to create a display [...]

Cellular Computing: Pushing the Boundaries of Computation

2017-10-26T18:44:08-07:00 May 7th, 2013|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Volume XVII|

Dr. Endy and his team have developed a cellular logic gate, dubbed a transcriptor, which was the last of three things necessary to making cellular computing a reality: a way to store information, a method of transporting information, and something to perform basic logic operations. Storage has been achieved through recoding DNA into storing massive [...]

Automotive Active Safety Systems

2017-11-03T17:33:24-07:00 May 1st, 2013|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Ergonomics, Issue III, Mechanical Engineering, Transportation, Volume XV|

Automotive active safety systems have saved many thousands of lives since their introduction. From simple headlights to automated emergency braking, active safety systems use advances in engineering to make driving safer. By making a vehicle more visible to other drivers, better informing a driver of road hazards, and even taking total control of an automobile [...]

Technology at the Tip of Your Finger: Contact Lenses beyond Vision Correction

2017-11-03T17:28:05-07:00 December 10th, 2012|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Health & Medicine, Issue II, Lifestyle, Volume XV|

Engineers are discovering modern applications of the contact lens, extending from correcting vision to curing blindness. Intraocular pressure sensors in contact lenses may provide relief to glaucoma patients; stem cell colonies from a healthy eye may, when applied to a lens, help repair vision loss. Contact lenses are also the subject of nanotechnology experiments, including [...]

Mobile Microscopes: How Your Cell Phone Can Save Lives

2017-11-03T17:51:57-07:00 December 6th, 2011|Biomedical Engineering, Communication, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Physics, Volume XIV|

What if a text message could save a life? Dr. Ayogdan Ozcan and his team of researchers have developed a cost-efficient, revolutionary device that can perform basic diagnostics for blood cell count, malaria, and tuberculosis – all on the back of a $30 camera phone. The device uses a lens-free imaging technique known as LUCAS, [...]

No Vacancy: IPv4 Address Depletion and Possible Solutions for the Expanding Internet

2017-11-11T17:28:41-08:00 June 27th, 2011|Communication, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue III, Volume XIII|

Internet Protocol (IP) addresses form the foundation of the internet. Every device and website requires an IP address to send and receive information. Unfortunately, IPv4, the current IP address system, is limited to approximately 4 billion possible addresses, a threshold that is quickly approaching as countless new devices connect to the internet. When no IPv4 [...]

Thought-Controlled Wheelchair

2017-11-11T17:32:13-08:00 June 4th, 2011|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Issue II, Transportation, Volume XIII|

Brain-computer interfaces have offered the opportunity for highly disabled patients with motor disabilities to live more normal lives. The recent innovations in thought-controlled wheelchairs using EEG technology will allow patients to not only communicate with their surroundings but to also navigate around them. The development of this technology could potentially make a huge impact on [...]

If You Can Think It, You Can Print It: Exploring the Possibilities of 3D Printing

2017-11-11T17:25:55-08:00 April 6th, 2011|Computer Science, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume XIII|

Utilizing precision computer control and harnessing advances in materials science, the development of the three-dimensional (3D) printer has opened up a new realm of manufacturing possibilities. The 3D printer is a device which can create three dimensional objects from plastics and metals. Complex geometries and surfaces are now reproducible. While initially developed for the manufacturing [...]

Inside a Slot Machine

2017-08-09T12:47:48-07:00 November 10th, 2010|Computer Science, Entertainment|

Gambling is a billion dollar industry that attracts millions of people around the world. While games such as Texas Hold ‘Em poker receive more fanfare, by far the most profitable and available attraction in these casinos is the slot machine. While familiar in appearance, these devices are a mystery to the layperson. Dating back to [...]

Spread the Sound: A Brief History of Music Reproduction

2017-11-11T17:27:15-08:00 October 6th, 2010|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Lifestyle, Material Science, Volume XIII|

Advancements in technology over the last 150 years have allowed people to spread music throughout the world by recording sound into a physical form and replaying it at their convenience. Music reproduction began in the late 19th century with the advent of the vinyl album, the first invention to let the masses record audio into [...]

The New Dimension of Entertainment: 3D Technology

2017-11-11T17:04:01-08:00 May 4th, 2010|Art, Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue III, Lifestyle, Material Science, Sports & Recreation, Volume XII|

Image depth is created by three processes: layering, line perspective, and binocular stereoscopy. The first two are most effective in creating 2D paintings while binocular stereoscopy is used in 3D media today. Stereoscopy employs the same principles as natural binocular vision by layering two slightly different images, which will then be separated for each eye, [...]

Letting No Music Go Unrecognized

2017-11-11T16:40:11-08:00 April 1st, 2010|Computer Science, Issue II, Lifestyle, Music, Physics, Volume XII|

Modern music recognition software has taken the guesswork out of locating music. With just a tap of a finger, smartphone users everywhere can record, send, and analyze 15 seconds worth of music to receive a response with the track name in only a matter of seconds. By analyzing a song’s unique “audio fingerprint” and reducing [...]

Deep Blue: The History and Engineering behind Computer Chess

2017-11-12T23:03:02-08:00 March 4th, 2010|Computer Science, Entertainment|

Computer chess software available today is a staple of modern computing distractions. Few may recognize the rich history behind the development of that technology. In a revolutionary chess tournament in 1997, the chess world champion was defeated by an IBM supercomputer called Deep Blue, shocking the media and the general public. To the artificial intelligence [...]

WiMAX: The Next Generation of Wireless Technology

2017-11-12T22:56:59-08:00 November 1st, 2009|Communication, Computer Science, Issue II, Lifestyle, Volume XI|

Today, it may seem like Internet access is ubiquitous, but a new wireless broadband system called WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) promises to revolutionize the utility and accessibility of the Internet. WiMAX technology has a longer range, higher spectral efficiency, and ability to connect multiple users at the same time. It also has a [...]

Cloud Computing

2017-11-12T21:24:03-08:00 December 5th, 2008|Computer Science, Issue IV, Volume X|

Cloud computing is the up-and-coming computing revolution that will change the way we access applications and data. With the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and web applications such as Google Apps, Facebook, and eyeOS, the running of applications and storing of data has begun to shift from the personal computer to “the cloud”. Cloud computing [...]

Microprocessors: The Silicon Revolution

2017-11-11T06:14:43-08:00 May 2nd, 2008|Computer Science, Issue II, Volume X|

The microprocessor can be considered one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century, placing an entire room of computer equipment with a single chip. The fundamental operations of a microprocessor are basic, yet it has allowed so much to be accomplished. As transistors, the building blocks of microprocessors, approach their minimum size limits, creative [...]

The Inner Workings of Speech Recognition

2017-11-11T17:17:11-08:00 November 4th, 2005|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Lifestyle, Volume VIII|

With research focusing on different ways for people to interact with computers, speech recognition is emerging as a very important technology. Whether it is using a voice controlled navigation system in a car, or a voice controlled system over the phone, speech recognition is bound to play a larger role in society. Ultimately, various theories [...]

Michelangelo’s Motion Picture

2018-11-07T10:30:06-08:00 October 24th, 2004|Art, Computer Science, Issue II, Volume VI|

With the recent boom in digital technology, science has opened the doors to historical secrets. For years, engineering has paved the path to knowledge. Now, it has come to the aid of aesthetes, uncovering the mysteries hidden for us by history's master artists. 3D scanning provides art historians with virtual models of sculptures whose accuracy [...]

Curves of Steel: CATIA and the Walt Disney Concert Hall

2019-01-10T10:47:29-08:00 January 1st, 2004|Building & Architecture, Computer Science, Issue V, Volume V|

The Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by architect Frank Gehry, makes extensive use of computer technology. Without the use of CATIA (Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application), construction of the concert hall would have been impossible. After a physical model is built, the model is scanned by a laser device that transmits coordinates to the CATIA program. [...]

If you GNU what I GNU

2019-01-10T10:53:07-08:00 December 4th, 2003|Computer Science, Issue V, Volume V|

The world of computing is a constantly evolving model of technological innovation, financial gain and ruin, and philosophical ideals. The open source revolution has placed these three branches of the industry in the spotlight, shaking the traditional foundations of the technology market. In a world of secrecy, and even deception, some programmers are taking a [...]

Broadband over Power Lines

2018-11-07T11:07:08-08:00 October 24th, 2003|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Volume VI|

In order to bring high-speed internet to areas where developing a traditional broadband infrastructure would be cost prohibitive, engineers have recently begun working on developing techniques for delivering broadband internet signals over the existing power supply grid. By using an entirely different frequency range, power lines can carry traditional AC power and data signals simultaneously. [...]

Multiple Access Schemes for Mobile Phones

2017-11-02T15:35:06-07:00 September 1st, 2003|Communication, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Volume VI|

Mobile phones allow users to place calls, send text messages, and receive updates from the internet. Information from a mobile phone is sent and received by way of electromagnetic waves. All information is encoded prior to transmission, decoded upon arrival, and must be sent so that many users can share the cellular system without mutual [...]

Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) and Their Implications for the Future

2019-01-10T11:03:22-08:00 May 4th, 2003|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Volume V|

Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) are widely being hailed as the up-and-coming successor to barcodes. The superiority of RFID lies in its faster speed, rewriting capabilities, and the fact that the device need not be visible to be read. However, until the cost of RFID is lowered, barcodes will remain the prevalent technology. RFID works [...]

A Look At Surveillance Cameras

2019-01-10T12:00:04-08:00 December 6th, 2002|Computer Science, Issue I, Security & Defense, Volume V|

When taking a look around a public place, one may observe an increase in the use of surveillance cameras. This is partially due to technological advances that have introduced new benefits for businesses and law enforcement agencies that implement video surveillance. Current technology allows an operator to view live surveillance footage from a remote location [...]

Photo-Realism: An Exact Science?

2018-11-07T11:13:41-08:00 September 2nd, 2002|Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue II, Volume VI|

Occasionally, it is the job of special effects artists in film and television to manipulate reality in order to present an image that audiences believe they would see, as opposed to what they would actually see in real life. This concept and practice incorporates not only the mathematics and engineering of special and visual effects, [...]

Reconfigurable Computing: Virtual “On-the-Fly” Hardware Swapping

2019-01-10T12:14:04-08:00 August 2nd, 2002|Computer Science, Issue I, Volume V|

A new hardware paradigm technology encompassing reprogrammable circuitry commands the versatility of general design processors and the speed of application-specific circuits. One manifestation of this design stratagem is the field programmable gate array, a collection of logic functions whose software controlled interconnections can be altered at will to optimize select processing requirements. This technology can [...]

A Simple Complexity

2017-10-30T11:28:30-07:00 March 16th, 2002|Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue II|

Created as a teaching toy twenty years ago, Erno Rubik's cube quickly became a popular toy that entertained, challenged, and confounded millions of people. The cube consists of a core and attached outer cubes designed to allow rotation on three axes. Rubik's cube can be used to study permutations and algorithms, as well as serving [...]

Silicon Smarts: Artificially Intelligent Computers

2017-10-27T11:19:53-07:00 April 6th, 2001|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Volume I|

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) incorporates many disparate disciplines. In the past few decades, theoretical work done in the field has made technological breakthroughs, such as expert systems and interactive robots, possible. These artificially intelligence systems touch our everyday lives, and new AI developments hold even more promise to benefit mankind. The Basics of [...]

Minerva: A Pioneer in Everyday Robots

2017-10-30T11:32:02-07:00 November 11th, 2000|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Mechanical Engineering, Volume III|

Robots are often relegated to the realm of fantasy. But Minerva, an interactive tour-guide robot, which was successfully exhibited in the Smithsonian Museum, has brought robotics to everyday life. Robots: Cuddly or Deadly? From the terrifying annihilators of Terminator II to the cute, artificial creature of Short Circuit, contemporary science fiction has done so much to shape people's [...]

Talking to Your Computer

2017-10-26T18:44:19-07:00 September 1st, 2000|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Lifestyle, Volume I|

Speech recognition capabilities on personal computers may soon become common applications for those who wish to have relief from inordinate amounts of typing or data entry. Perfect speech recognition is difficult to achieve, however, thanks to variations in speech from person to person. The development of these capabilities requires understanding of human speech variance and [...]

The New and Improved Reality

2017-10-26T18:57:35-07:00 April 6th, 2000|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue II, Volume I|

Augmented Reality is a technology in which virtual images are superimposed on views of the real world to provide users with additional information. Engineers are already experimenting with practical applications of Augmented Reality in the realms of medicine, manufacturing, emergency situations, and efficiency evaluation. However, improvements must still be made in the areas of tracking [...]