Material Science

SpectOCULAR: Using Smart Contacts to Improve Disease Diagnosis and Treatment

2020-01-31T13:33:46-08:00 January 31st, 2020|Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Issue I, Lifestyle, Material Science, Volume XX|

Abstract Smart contacts are one of the newest platforms for smart technology. They couple a compact wearable device with equipment for health diagnostics and drug delivery, optimizing both the existing infrastructures of ophthalmology and general medicine. Smart contacts already have a wide potential customer base in patients who want improved quality of life and real-time [...]

Bottling the Problem: Drinking Water

2019-11-13T11:39:30-08:00 July 1st, 2019|Energy & Sustainability, Food & Drink, Industrial Engineering, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume XIX|

Written by: Augustine Au Augustine is a junior studying Business Administration at the University of Southern California. He is passionate about entrepreneurship and aspires to use his knowledge to positively impact his community. Abstract The development of bottled drinking water has revolutionized the way in which the world has acquired and consumed water. This article [...]

Thermal Imaging: The next game changer for medical devices?

2019-03-07T17:38:07-08:00 March 7th, 2019|Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Material Science, Volume XIX|

Abstract Thermal imaging has incredible medical device applications. Infrared light is the driving force behind this technology because it allows us to produce an image derived from temperature variations. Bolometers allow infrared light to be converted to temperatures and are produced through UV lithography. The final product is infrared sensors that are affordable and can [...]

The Human Lung…On a Chip!

2018-10-31T12:34:45-07:00 October 30th, 2018|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue III, Material Science, Volume XVIII|

Abstract The lung-on-a-chip is a clear, flexible microdevice that mimics the structure and function of the human lung. The size of a USB memory stick, the chip contains tiny hollow channels lined by living human lung cells. Inside the chip, realistically arranged cell layers are exposed to a flow of nutrients and air, as well [...]

From Shark Skin to Speed

2017-11-29T17:11:19-08:00 March 21st, 2017|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Lifestyle, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Volume XVIII, Water|

Sharks inspire a feeling of awe in many people, partly due to their natural speed and representation of power. Through modern biomimicry, scientists have been able to imitate shark skin and design speed-enhancing technologies to benefit transportation, medicine, and apparel design. Introduction When visiting a local aquarium, there is no lack of spectacles that may [...]

Engineering Ice Cream

2017-11-29T17:24:25-08:00 March 1st, 2017|Chemical Engineering, Food & Drink, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Lifestyle, Material Science, Volume XVIII, Water|

When you put a spoonful of your favorite ice cream into your mouth, you are enraptured by blasts of flavor, its creamy texture, and coolness on your tongue. Ice cream makers have the same qualities in mind when they are formulating the recipe to their next frozen creation. But, more specifically they are mulling over [...]

Solving the Brain Crisis in Sports

2018-01-19T06:19:49-08:00 June 25th, 2015|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue III, Lifestyle, Material Science, Sports & Recreation, Volume XVII|

Over the past few decades professional and collegiate football leagues have garnered significant attention regarding the health and safety issues that players face, specifically pertaining to concussions and brain health. While head injuries can occur in a variety of different ways, hard hits involving the helmets of one or more players are identified as the [...]

3D Printed Organs

2018-02-23T11:32:40-08:00 March 1st, 2014|Biomedical Engineering, Editors' Picks, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Material Science, Volume XVI|

The field of tissue engineering has allowed developments in 3D printing organic parts and materials. 3D printing has become a widely popular means of manufacturing over the past decade, combining ease of design on a computer with fast production of custom parts. In regards to tissue engineering, these advantages have staggering implications in terms of [...]

Layer-by-Layer: Engineering Surfaces

2017-11-03T17:26:51-07:00 May 1st, 2013|Civil Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Issue II, Lifestyle, Material Science, Volume XV|

Modifying window panes with thin films can block infrared rays from entering a building, an innovation that can make cars and homes more energy-efficient by limiting the need for air conditioners and heating units. The technology behind these films—layer-by-layer deposition—features many remarkable applications in the present and promises even more for the future. Introduction You [...]

Space-Based Solar Power: A New Path Towards Sustainable, Clean Energy?

2017-11-10T18:45:54-08:00 April 21st, 2012|Aerospace Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Power, Security & Defense, Space, Volume XIV|

Space-based solar power (SBSP) is an idea that has been alternatively promoted and ignored since its inception in 1968. A space-based solar power system is essentially a satellite comprised mainly of solar panels that beams electrical energy down to a collecting station on Earth, which then distributes that energy to the domestic power grid. The [...]

Translucent Concrete: An Emerging Material

2017-11-10T14:52:53-08:00 December 9th, 2011|Building & Architecture, Issue II, Material Science, Volume XIV|

Concrete, that traditionally solid, substantial building material, is getting a makeover. Engineers have now developed concrete mixtures that are capable of transmitting light. By switching the ingredients of traditional concrete with transparent ones, or embedding fiber optics, translucent concrete has become a reality. As with any new material, it is expensive and still has some [...]

Power-Generating Fashion: A Look into Smart Textiles

2017-11-11T17:31:33-08:00 December 7th, 2011|Electrical Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Ergonomics, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Volume XIII|

Technology has advanced the functions of clothing to a new level through the creation of power-generating textiles. These materials are made of solar cell or piezoelectric fabric that will allow enough electricity to be generated to recharge a small, portable electronic device. With additional engineering and research, clothing that can recharge any portable electronic device [...]

Silver Nanoparticles: A Valuable Weapon in Microbial Warfare

2017-11-11T17:33:34-08:00 December 4th, 2011|Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Issue III, Material Science, Volume XIII|

Nanotechnology is currently being used as a valuable weapon for combating body odor-causing bacteria. Materials can be manufactured at the ‘nano’ scale, one billion times smaller than the world of meters we currently live in. Nanoparticles provide terrific driving forces for diffusion, which allows chemical reactions to occur at a high rate. In the case [...]

Stealth Characteristics of the F-22 Raptor

2017-11-10T14:49:38-08:00 December 1st, 2011|Aerospace Engineering, Issue II, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Security & Defense, Volume XIV|

The F-22 Raptor was developed by Lockheed Martin in partnership with Boeing. Though initially developed to serve as an air superiority fighter, which meant that it would take control of enemy airspace and destroy any opposition, it has developed into more of a multi-role vehicle. The F-22 is an overwhelming vehicle with capabilities that enable [...]

Thorium Reactors: Solving the Global Energy Crisis

2017-11-03T18:02:26-07:00 July 7th, 2011|Chemical Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Issue I, Material Science, Volume XIV|

As global demand for energy increases and access to fossil fuels decreases, we face a crisis. Nuclear power offers ecologically sound energy, but it is costly to produce and maintain. In the wake of the tragedy at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, nuclear energy seems less safe in the eyes of the public, [...]

Biology’s Approach to Construction: The Development and Use of Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

2017-11-11T17:23:53-08:00 July 1st, 2011|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue III, Material Science, Volume XIII|

The field of tissue engineering has seen significant improvements in the past 10 years, much of which is due to the development of tissue scaffolds. These 3-dimensional, porous structures are perfectly suited for cellular attachment and growth due to their physical similarities to the native extracellular matrix. The ability of scaffolds to be strong yet [...]

The Prospects of Invisibility Cloaks: Bending the Laws of Light

2017-11-11T17:29:05-08:00 June 27th, 2011|Electrical Engineering, Ergonomics, Issue II, Material Science, Physics, Volume XIII|

Current research and experimentation with metamaterials have led to advancements in the development of invisibility. Metamaterials can be used to make objects appear invisible by bending light around those objects through refraction instead of away from those objects by reflection. Though no natural material exhibits this behavior, engineers are working to design cloaking devices with [...]

Composite Technology and the Hockey Stick Revolution

2017-11-11T17:25:16-08:00 April 27th, 2011|Issue II, Material Science, Physics, Sports & Recreation, Volume XIII|

Over the last decade, the game of hockey has changed significantly, especially due to advances in composite hockey stick technology. This paper discusses the progression of hockey stick composition throughout the years as well as important properties of hockey sticks and how the composition of sticks affects these properties. It also examines the slap shot, [...]

If You Can Think It, You Can Print It: Exploring the Possibilities of 3D Printing

2017-11-11T17:25:55-08:00 April 6th, 2011|Computer Science, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume XIII|

Utilizing precision computer control and harnessing advances in materials science, the development of the three-dimensional (3D) printer has opened up a new realm of manufacturing possibilities. The 3D printer is a device which can create three dimensional objects from plastics and metals. Complex geometries and surfaces are now reproducible. While initially developed for the manufacturing [...]

Tissue Engineering: Growing Human Livers?

2017-11-03T18:03:32-07:00 April 1st, 2011|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue I, Material Science, Volume XIV|

Current research in tissue engineering may soon offer a solution to the rising number of people waiting for livers. Recent research has shown promising breakthroughs; In June, 2010 researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston managed to successfully transplant an artificial liver into a rat. This research also has the potential to advance other [...]

The World’s Most Attractive Magnet that is not Attracting Attention

2017-11-03T17:59:18-07:00 March 11th, 2011|Energy & Sustainability, Issue I, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume XIV|

Invented in 1983, the neodymium magnet, though not well-known, is the world’s most powerful permanent magnet. Composed of approximately 70% iron, 5% boron, and 25% neodymium, neodymium magnets are utilized in electric motors, smart phones, hard drives, headphones, speakers, and many more applications. Compared with its predecessor, the Samarium Cobalt magnet, it is 1.5 to [...]

Spread the Sound: A Brief History of Music Reproduction

2017-11-11T17:27:15-08:00 October 6th, 2010|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Lifestyle, Material Science, Volume XIII|

Advancements in technology over the last 150 years have allowed people to spread music throughout the world by recording sound into a physical form and replaying it at their convenience. Music reproduction began in the late 19th century with the advent of the vinyl album, the first invention to let the masses record audio into [...]

Soaring to New Heights: The Evolution of Pole Vaulting and Pole Materials

2017-11-11T16:49:05-08:00 September 1st, 2010|Issue II, Material Science, Physics, Sports & Recreation, Volume XII|

Pole vaulting is an incredibly dynamic and complex sport that requires high levels of athleticism, precision, and skill. The process of the vault involves the transfer of energy from the vaulter to the pole, and finally back to the vaulter as he is launched into the air. As a result, the vault relies heavily on [...]

The New Dimension of Entertainment: 3D Technology

2017-11-11T17:04:01-08:00 May 4th, 2010|Art, Computer Science, Entertainment, Issue III, Lifestyle, Material Science, Sports & Recreation, Volume XII|

Image depth is created by three processes: layering, line perspective, and binocular stereoscopy. The first two are most effective in creating 2D paintings while binocular stereoscopy is used in 3D media today. Stereoscopy employs the same principles as natural binocular vision by layering two slightly different images, which will then be separated for each eye, [...]

Biomimetics: Engineering Spider Silk

2017-10-26T18:10:35-07:00 November 1st, 2009|Issue I, Material Science, Volume XI|

Spider silk has drawn much attention from engineers in the past 20 years for its toughness and elasticity, properties which may be utilized in applications such as suspension bridge wires, bulletproof vests, and medical adhesives. There remains, however, a mystery behind the production of spider silk. Scientists are intensively studying this process in order for [...]

Aerogel – The Insulative Frozen Smoke

2017-11-11T06:23:34-08:00 October 10th, 2009|Aerospace Engineering, Issue III, Lifestyle, Material Science, Space, Volume X|

Aerogel, a material commonly referred to as "frozen" or "solid smoke," was originally developed in the 1930s, but has not received much attention until now. Scientists and engineers recently realized the possibilities of working with such an unusual substance, focusing on its strength-to-weight ratio and its thermal resistivity. These properties are a result of the [...]

Sticking With It

2017-11-12T22:54:56-08:00 March 1st, 2009|Biomedical Engineering, Issue II, Material Science, Volume XI|

Engineers are increasingly drawing on inspiration from other fields combined with creative problem-solving to construct the products of the future. The ability of the gecko to scale slick vertical surfaces has long been a fascination of biologists and scientists alike, with current engineers looking to harness this power to create new medical products. Three potential [...]

The Violin: The Art Behind the Sound

2018-11-07T16:38:31-08:00 October 24th, 2005|Entertainment, Issue I, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Volume VII|

The violin is regarded as one of the most important musical instruments in history, perhaps because of its fundamental role in an orchestra or the inspiration and emotion transferred to the listener upon hearing its powerfully romantic sound. While its construction concentrates on producing impeccable sound, had the violin not adhered to the laws of [...]

Tension Fabric: Waves of the Future

2018-11-07T16:46:37-08:00 July 21st, 2005|Civil Engineering, Issue I, Material Science, Volume VII|

While architecture based on tension has been used since ancient times, almost every permanent structure in the world, until about 50 years ago, was based on compression loading. Beginning in the 1950's, there was a renewed interest in tension structures led by the German architect Frei Otto. As a result of research performed by Otto [...]

Reflecting on the Mirrors

2017-11-11T04:01:52-08:00 April 26th, 2005|Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue III, Material Science, Volume IX|

Advertisements for some new types of televisions claim that their superb picture quality is due to “the mirrors.” These mirrors are on the order of microns wide, and millions of them reside in the back of DLP televisions. This way of projecting the light source is a cutting-edge method (over LCD and Plasma) that allows [...]

The Harp: Engineering the Perfect Sound

2019-01-10T11:18:19-08:00 April 17th, 2003|Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

The history of the harp goes back thousands of years. The harp is regarded as the world's oldest string instrument. It influenced the evolution of the piano, guitar, and violin. Engineering is the application of science to the art of problem solving; the harp has encompassed the ideals of engineering. Through many centuries, harp makers [...]

Bamboo: An Alternative Movement

2019-01-10T11:50:52-08:00 April 7th, 2003|Building & Architecture, Energy & Sustainability, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

Bamboo is emerging as an alternative resource to other types of wood. In the past, people intuitively used it as a basic material for making many different household objects and small structures. However, ongoing research and engineering efforts are enabling us to realize bamboo's true value as a renewable, versatile and readily available economic resource. [...]

Collaborative Engineering Creates Artificial Mega-Structure at the Port of Los Angeles

2019-01-10T11:52:29-08:00 April 4th, 2003|Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume V|

It is not uncommon to see distinctions drawn between civil and environmental engineering projects. Preconceptions are regularly formed over what truly constitutes an environmentally friendly task, and these preconceptions rarely include the work of civil engineers. However, many engineering wonders exist primarily due to the interaction between these two disciplines. One such marvel, the Port [...]

Alternative Building for the Future

2019-01-10T11:56:34-08:00 March 12th, 2003|Building & Architecture, Energy & Sustainability, Environmental Engineering, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

The advancement of technology and the preservation of the environment do not have to be opposing goals. When taken together, these objectives provide the basis for sustainable technologies that reduce resource consumption and pollution. Through the use of these technologies and a little creative planning, a building can be constructed that includes all the expected [...]

The Pivot Advantage

2018-11-07T13:14:35-08:00 April 6th, 2002|Issue I, Lifestyle, Material Science, Sports & Recreation, Volume VI|

Scuba divers rely on diving fins for underwater propulsion. Recent advancements in fin technology have increased divers' locomotive efficiency, with some designs drawing ideas from structures in nature for improvement. Traditional paddle fins have been modified to include grooved surfaces, pivoting structures, and split designs to maximize forward thrust per kick and reduce energy expenditure. [...]

Dynamics of the M16 Assault Rifle

2017-10-27T11:30:50-07:00 October 1st, 2001|Issue II, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Volume I|

The news media has recently portrayed assault rifles as an evil of society. However, the assault rifle is often a misunderstood device. The M16, the standard assault rifle used by the United States military and many other defensive forces throughout the world, derives its popularity from its durability, efficiency, accuracy, and variable fire rate. The [...]

The Engineering Behind Shoe Design

2017-10-26T18:36:09-07:00 October 1st, 2000|Issue III, Lifestyle, Material Science, Sports & Recreation, Volume II|

Shoe design is a complex process that involves the collaboration of a variety of individuals, including runners, craftsmen, technicians, scientists, and doctors. This article will focus on the complicated efforts that stand behind a relatively simple piece of athletic equipment: the running shoe. Introduction They were dreaming about running . . . Knifing through the [...]