Volume VII

Rescuing or Imprisoning Digital Media

2018-11-07T16:31:28-08:00 March 27th, 2011|Entertainment, Issue II, Volume VII|

Because the Internet makes digital media easily accessible, copyright infringement is a more serious risk than ever before. At the same time, great creative and educational opportunities arise from the unparalleled availability of so much creative work. A system called Digital Rights Management (DRM) has been developed to enforce and protect copyrighted digital media and [...]


2018-11-07T16:32:23-08:00 March 27th, 2011|Chemical Engineering, Issue II, Volume VII|

The refrigerator is an important instrument of food preservation for modern society. The refrigeration cycle is the chemical process that drives the refrigerator and generally consists of four main steps: 1) compression of ammonia refrigerant; 2) cooling of ammonia refrigerant; 3) expansion of ammonia refrigerant; and 4) drawing in of heat from the core of [...]

The Engineering Behind Surfing

2018-11-07T16:33:05-08:00 December 1st, 2005|Issue III, Lifestyle, Physics, Volume VII|

Many people enjoy watching surfers or riding waves; however, few people consider the physical or design aspects of this pastime. The physics of surfing, from the way waves are generated, to the concept of buoyancy, to the physical forces that enable the surfer to ride a wave, show that there is more science than luck [...]

The Violin: The Art Behind the Sound

2018-11-07T16:38:31-08:00 October 24th, 2005|Entertainment, Issue I, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Volume VII|

The violin is regarded as one of the most important musical instruments in history, perhaps because of its fundamental role in an orchestra or the inspiration and emotion transferred to the listener upon hearing its powerfully romantic sound. While its construction concentrates on producing impeccable sound, had the violin not adhered to the laws of [...]

Micropropulsion and the Future of Space Exploration

2018-11-07T16:36:24-08:00 October 12th, 2005|Aerospace Engineering, Issue III, Volume VII|

An emerging trend in the space industry today is the shift from large satellites to smaller microsatellites. It is envisioned that groups of microsatellites could communicate with each other, allowing them to increase their functionality and creating very adaptable networks that could replace the functions of larger, more complex spacecraft. The stringent power, weight, and [...]

The Little Plastic Bulb

2018-11-07T16:34:58-08:00 October 10th, 2005|Electrical Engineering, Issue III, Volume VII|

Since being introduced in the 1960's the light emitting diode (LED) has found applications in many areas due to its power efficiency, low power consumption, long life and toughness. Applications include indicator lights on electronic devices, backlights for liquid crystal display screens on cell phones and laptops, traffic lights and even wireless communications and counterfeit [...]

Swimming: A Dragging Battle Against the Forces of Physics

2018-11-07T16:44:07-08:00 September 1st, 2005|Issue II, Physics, Sports & Recreation, Volume VII|

In a sport where a hundredth of a second can make all the difference, swimmers are constantly looking for ways to increase the efficiency of their stroke and improve their times. However, the physical force of drag remains a swimmer's ultimate obstacle. There are multiple forms of drag - friction, pressure, and wave - and [...]

Shampoo Formulation: Perception and Reality

2018-11-07T16:47:57-08:00 September 1st, 2005|Chemical Engineering, Issue II, Lifestyle, Volume VII|

Billions of dollars are spent by consumers on hair care products every year, mostly on shampoo. Consumers are bombarded every day by advertising that promises stronger, shinier, healthier hair. Actually, differentiating additives, such as vitamins, account for small percentages of shampoo ingredients. The consumer may be shocked to hear that many advertised promises fall flat [...]

Tension Fabric: Waves of the Future

2018-11-07T16:46:37-08:00 July 21st, 2005|Civil Engineering, Issue I, Material Science, Volume VII|

While architecture based on tension has been used since ancient times, almost every permanent structure in the world, until about 50 years ago, was based on compression loading. Beginning in the 1950's, there was a renewed interest in tension structures led by the German architect Frei Otto. As a result of research performed by Otto [...]

The Evolution of GPS

2018-11-07T16:40:50-08:00 May 2nd, 2005|Communication, Issue I, Volume VII|

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is rapidly becoming an integral part of our everyday lives. The system, created by the United States Department of Defense in 1973, has gone through many changes since its introduction to the public in 1995. GPS uses the concept of trilateration to provide your location, but relies on Differential GPS [...]

American Football: That Magic Yellow Line

2018-11-07T16:42:14-08:00 April 6th, 2005|Issue III, Sports & Recreation, Volume VII|

Virtual technology has brought a whole new perspective to watching football from your couch. The implementation of first-down lines in television broadcasts of America's homegrown sport has provided fans with a viewing experience that integrates cutting edge technology into the fast-paced world of athletics. This single yellow line may appear simple enough; however, its appearance [...]


2018-11-07T16:49:39-08:00 October 12th, 2004|Entertainment, Issue III, Volume VII|

Engineers have created a tool known as the sampler that allows the user to play a prerecorded sound at any time. The sound can also be pitched, stretched, cut up, rearranged, looped, layered and reversed. Through the sampler, engineers have profoundly influenced music and the way that it is produced as well as interpreted and [...]