Volume V

Ion Propulsion: Exploring Space in the 21st Century

2019-01-10T11:19:23-08:00 October 18th, 2004|Aerospace Engineering, Issue V, Physics, Volume V|

Electric or ion propulsion is the newest propulsion system that NASA has put into successful operation. The Deep Space 1 mission used the ion engine as its primary propulsion system and tested its capabilities for the 21st century. Its advantages over conventional propulsion include lower fuel weight, much higher fuel efficiency, and longer operational life. [...]

Curves of Steel: CATIA and the Walt Disney Concert Hall

2019-01-10T10:47:29-08:00 January 1st, 2004|Building & Architecture, Computer Science, Issue V, Volume V|

The Walt Disney Concert Hall, designed by architect Frank Gehry, makes extensive use of computer technology. Without the use of CATIA (Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application), construction of the concert hall would have been impossible. After a physical model is built, the model is scanned by a laser device that transmits coordinates to the CATIA program. [...]

The Changing Face of Paintball

2019-01-10T10:49:13-08:00 December 7th, 2003|Issue V, Mechanical Engineering, Sports & Recreation, Volume V|

At its essence, paintball is about marking other players with gelatin capsules filled with colored dye shot from a gun powered by compressed gas. While the fundamentals of the game have not changed since its inception, the technologies behind many of its principles have advanced. Fuelling this change is the development of newer, more sophisticated [...]

The Chemistry Behind Moisturizers

2019-01-10T10:59:53-08:00 December 4th, 2003|Chemical Engineering, Issue V, Lifestyle, Volume V|

The skin is a complex organ with many layers. Its structure is designed to minimize moisture loss from the body while preventing foreign materials from entering. To accomplish these functions, the skin must have a protective covering of lipids, or oil-soluble molecules. Exposure to everyday conditions can strip the skin of its protective lipid covering. [...]

If you GNU what I GNU

2019-01-10T10:53:07-08:00 December 4th, 2003|Computer Science, Issue V, Volume V|

The world of computing is a constantly evolving model of technological innovation, financial gain and ruin, and philosophical ideals. The open source revolution has placed these three branches of the industry in the spotlight, shaking the traditional foundations of the technology market. In a world of secrecy, and even deception, some programmers are taking a [...]

Directional Audio

2019-01-10T10:51:45-08:00 May 5th, 2003|Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue IV, Lifestyle, Volume V|

A collection of recently developed audio technologies allows for the creation of thin, directional sound beams. With this type of equipment, focused streams of sound can be pointed exactly where the user wants them. Directional sound technology will likely see widespread adoption in the near future as engineers continue developing sound beam technology for numerous [...]

Satellites: Made to Soar

2019-01-10T10:57:57-08:00 May 5th, 2003|Aerospace Engineering, Communication, Electrical Engineering, Issue III, Volume V|

The launch of Sputnik in 1957 by the USSR marked the beginning of the satellite era. The next half-century saw new research and development that changed satellites into the useful tool of contemporary society. Modern satellites can help locate people all over the world, aid in scientific research, and perform many other valuable functions. Introduction [...]

Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) and Their Implications for the Future

2019-01-10T11:03:22-08:00 May 4th, 2003|Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Volume V|

Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) are widely being hailed as the up-and-coming successor to barcodes. The superiority of RFID lies in its faster speed, rewriting capabilities, and the fact that the device need not be visible to be read. However, until the cost of RFID is lowered, barcodes will remain the prevalent technology. RFID works [...]

The Engineering of Beer

2019-01-10T11:01:54-08:00 May 3rd, 2003|Chemical Engineering, Food & Drink, Issue IV, Volume V|

Beer has existed for thousands of years. During its long history its popularity has changed considerably in response to technological advancements and social pressures. Although beer was created before the science behind it was understood, the process of making beer can be thought of as a series of chemical engineering tasks that includes separation processes [...]

The Digital Image Sensor

2019-01-10T11:05:47-08:00 May 3rd, 2003|Electrical Engineering, Issue III, Lifestyle, Volume V|

The digital image sensor is a technology used to record electronic images. The most commonly recognized application of the digital image sensor is the digital camera. In digital cameras, the image sensor is used in conjunction with a color separation device and signal processing circuitry to record images. The two main technologies used to fabricate [...]

Wastewater Technology: Engineering a Healthier Society

2019-01-10T11:08:00-08:00 May 3rd, 2003|Biomedical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Issue II, Volume V|

Long before the age of computers, light bulbs, automobiles, or locomotives, a revolutionary feat in engineering transformed society. This technology almost singly separates developed countries from their developing counterparts, and many Americans take it for granted. Rarely do we ever think about it when we use it, and when we do, it's generally because it [...]


2019-01-10T11:09:39-08:00 May 3rd, 2003|Chemical Engineering, Energy & Sustainability, Environmental Engineering, Issue II, Volume V|

The natural environment is very easily polluted by the toxic compounds contained in oil. In the past, methods for restoring contaminated areas have been expensive but largely inadequate. A recently developed decontamination process called phytoremediation uses plants along with the bacteria that live in their roots to break down the toxins directly, or to absorb [...]

Immersion Through Video Games

2019-01-10T11:11:12-08:00 May 2nd, 2003|Entertainment, Issue IV, Lifestyle, Volume V|

Immersion is the process by which a media element entices a person to suspend their disbelief and accept what they are viewing on a screen or page as actual reality. Through non-linear dramatic elements and interaction between the player and the computer, a video game achieves a level of reality that demands very little suspension [...]

The Frisbee

2019-01-10T11:12:17-08:00 May 2nd, 2003|Entertainment, Issue III, Physics, Sports & Recreation|

The Frisbee, generally held to be a simple toy for children, was invented and refined in the late nineteenth century. Although it has grown in popularity since then, its general design, and thus the technique for its use, have remained fairly constant. The flight of a Frisbee is allowed and governed by the principles of [...]

Futuristic Rail Systems vs. the Humble Bus: An Infrastructural and Environmental Dilemma

2019-01-10T11:13:12-08:00 May 1st, 2003|Civil Engineering, Issue II, Transportation, Volume V|

Photochemical smog, created by any gasoline-powered vehicle on the road, is a major concern in Los Angeles today. Buses, despite being implemented to reduce this pollution by lessening the number of cars on the streets and freeways, are smoke-spewing machines that pose a risk to environmental and public health. They are also inefficient; most Los [...]

Building Blocks of Thought: Engineering the Neuron

2019-01-10T11:15:05-08:00 May 1st, 2003|Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Issue II, Volume V|

The brain is our body's information processing center. It controls everything that we do, making us intelligent, conscious, and alive. The brain is made up of over 100 billion neurons. The neuron, or nerve cell, is a type of cell responsible for the body's gathering, processing, and transmission of information. Much like a unit of [...]

UPSET: Triggering Natural Cell Death in Cancer

2019-01-10T11:16:30-08:00 April 28th, 2003|Biomedical Engineering, Issue I, Volume V|

Ultra-short Pulsed Systems Electroperturbation Technology (UPSET) has the potential to become a new cancer treatment due to its ability to trigger apoptosis, the natural death mode of cells. During apoptosis, a cell initiates a self-termination process to remove it without affecting surrounding tissue. UPSET generates and delivers pulses of 40 kV/cm and 20 nanoseconds in [...]

The Harp: Engineering the Perfect Sound

2019-01-10T11:18:19-08:00 April 17th, 2003|Electrical Engineering, Entertainment, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

The history of the harp goes back thousands of years. The harp is regarded as the world's oldest string instrument. It influenced the evolution of the piano, guitar, and violin. Engineering is the application of science to the art of problem solving; the harp has encompassed the ideals of engineering. Through many centuries, harp makers [...]

Bamboo: An Alternative Movement

2019-01-10T11:50:52-08:00 April 7th, 2003|Building & Architecture, Energy & Sustainability, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

Bamboo is emerging as an alternative resource to other types of wood. In the past, people intuitively used it as a basic material for making many different household objects and small structures. However, ongoing research and engineering efforts are enabling us to realize bamboo's true value as a renewable, versatile and readily available economic resource. [...]

Collaborative Engineering Creates Artificial Mega-Structure at the Port of Los Angeles

2019-01-10T11:52:29-08:00 April 4th, 2003|Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Issue III, Material Science, Mechanical Engineering, Volume V|

It is not uncommon to see distinctions drawn between civil and environmental engineering projects. Preconceptions are regularly formed over what truly constitutes an environmentally friendly task, and these preconceptions rarely include the work of civil engineers. However, many engineering wonders exist primarily due to the interaction between these two disciplines. One such marvel, the Port [...]

A Genetic Solution to Malaria: More Harm Than Good?

2019-01-10T11:53:34-08:00 April 4th, 2003|Biomedical Engineering, Health & Medicine, Issue III, Volume V|

Malaria continues to plague peoples worldwide, transmitted by a viral parasite carried by mosquitoes. Vaccines and pesticides have combated the disease in the past, but the disease adapts and becomes resistant to drugs, and pesticides such as DDT hurt the environment while killing mosquitoes. Geneticists have developed a new solution to this age-old quandary-a genetic [...]

Alternative Building for the Future

2019-01-10T11:56:34-08:00 March 12th, 2003|Building & Architecture, Energy & Sustainability, Environmental Engineering, Issue IV, Material Science, Volume V|

The advancement of technology and the preservation of the environment do not have to be opposing goals. When taken together, these objectives provide the basis for sustainable technologies that reduce resource consumption and pollution. Through the use of these technologies and a little creative planning, a building can be constructed that includes all the expected [...]

Improving the Bicycle

2017-11-03T17:22:30-07:00 December 28th, 2002|Issue I, Lifestyle, Transportation, Volume V|

Bicycles have been around for many years and are constantly being researched and improved. Many disciplines of science and engineering are necessary in making the bicycle what it is today and will be in the future. Since the appearance of the first bicycle in the late 1700s, this machine has evolved from a simple wooden [...]

The Quest for the Perfect Racket: Advances in Tennis Racket Design

2019-01-10T11:58:32-08:00 December 6th, 2002|Issue I, Mechanical Engineering, Sports & Recreation, Volume V|

The tennis racket has experienced continuous improvements to meet the performance demands of professional players. In designing a better tennis racket, engineers and scientists need to understand exactly what happens when the ball collides with the racket. The racket frame, strings, and tennis ball experience energy transfer, resulting in deformations of all three components. With [...]

Lie Detection: The Science and Development of the Polygraph

2019-01-10T12:08:08-08:00 December 6th, 2002|Biomedical Engineering, Issue I, Security & Defense, Volume V|

The idea of using a polygraph for lie detection emerged at the end of the nineteenth century. Despite major technological advances in the twentieth century, the polygraph has evolved little since its invention. The polygraph works under the assumption that lies can be detected by certain measurable physiological changes, a theory proposed more than 100 [...]

A Look At Surveillance Cameras

2019-01-10T12:00:04-08:00 December 6th, 2002|Computer Science, Issue I, Security & Defense, Volume V|

When taking a look around a public place, one may observe an increase in the use of surveillance cameras. This is partially due to technological advances that have introduced new benefits for businesses and law enforcement agencies that implement video surveillance. Current technology allows an operator to view live surveillance footage from a remote location [...]

Total Hip Replacement

2019-01-10T12:10:27-08:00 November 2nd, 2002|Health & Medicine, Issue I, Volume V|

Total hip replacement, or THR, is a very common and successful procedure. THR is often performed when wear of the hip joint -- due to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, or a related condition -- results in extreme pain. The worn femoral head and acetabulum (the ball and socket respectively) are removed and replaced with [...]

The Search for a Blood Substitute

2019-01-10T12:17:20-08:00 November 2nd, 2002|Health & Medicine, Issue I, Volume V|

In recent years, America's blood shortage has propelled the biotechnology of blood substitutes. Artificial blood does not contain the plasma, red and white cells, or platelets of human blood, but functions to transport and deliver oxygen to the body's tissues until the recipient's bone marrow has regenerated the missing red blood cells. Current blood substitutes [...]

Reconfigurable Computing: Virtual “On-the-Fly” Hardware Swapping

2019-01-10T12:14:04-08:00 August 2nd, 2002|Computer Science, Issue I, Volume V|

A new hardware paradigm technology encompassing reprogrammable circuitry commands the versatility of general design processors and the speed of application-specific circuits. One manifestation of this design stratagem is the field programmable gate array, a collection of logic functions whose software controlled interconnections can be altered at will to optimize select processing requirements. This technology can [...]